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Solid state :
- BCC, FCC, ccp crystal – unit cell calculation
- Radius(r) and nearest neighbour distance (d) relation only.
- Packing efficiency – bcc, fcc, ccp (no calculation)
- Octahedral and tetrahedral voids related numericals.
- Density related numericals (ρ = (Z x m) / (a³ x No))
- Schottky, Frenkel defect-in detail.
- F-center, NaCl yellow colour, ZnO
- n and p type semiconductor, temperature with semiconductor.
- Co-ordination number. NaCl, ZnS type crystal.
- Rasult’s Law, Positive and Negative deviation
- Colligative Property
- Elevation of bp. depression in freezing point, osmotic pr. Isotonic Solution
- Abnormal colligative property. Van’t Hoff factor. i = 1, i>1, i<1
- Na2SO4 , Glucose, MgCl2 – comparative study of colligative property.
- Nernst equation for different cell, numericals,
- standard reduction potential(definition),
- salt bridge,
- utility of electrochemical series,
- utility of standard reduction potential,
- cell representation,
- spontaneity of cell,
- cell constant (mainly numericals) ,
- specific equivalent and molar conductance-relation change with dilution,
- Kohlrausch’s law, and numerical,
- cell constant,
- Faraday’s law – mainly numericals
Chemical Kinetics :
- Zero, first order reaction in detail
- rate law, half life, units – numericals,
- numerical related to rate equation, order of reaction
Surface Chemistry :
- Physical and Chemical adsorption – differences,
- What is adsorption isotherm,
- lyuphilic and Lyophobic solutions differences,
- Why adsorption is exothermic,
- factors which influence the adsorption of a gas on a solid,
- aerosol, jel, foam, example (phase).
General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements :
- Froth floatation,
- Flux (Example),
- Zone refining,
- electrolyte refining,
- wrought iron,
- cast iron,
- role of NaCN in extraction of silver ore,
- role of Iodine in refining of Titanium,
- Role of depressant in froth floatation method,
- vapour phase refining,
- extraction of Cu2S – reactions involved.
- Why Aluminium can’t be extracted by chemical reduction process.
- Thermite mixture.
p-Block Elements :
- Inert pair effect – its application,
- boiling point,
- thermal stability of H2O, H2S, H2Se, H2Te. Acid strength, Reducing character of H2O, H2S, H2Se, H2Te.
- Electron gain enthalpy of F, Cl, Br, I.
- F2 is highly oxidising.
- Thermal stability, acid strength, reducing character of — HF, HCl, HBr, Hi.
- Acid strength of oxoacids of halogen.
- Why interhalogens are more reactive,
- pseudo halogen—example only.
- Reactions — Cl2 with NH3, Cl2 with H2S and Na2S2O3, Cl2 with hot and cold NaOH.
- Liquification and melting and boiling points of noble gases
- structure of XeF4, XeOF4, XeO3. F2, Cl2, Br2, I2 (bond energy).
- Tailing of Mercury,
- O3 reacts with I2, HCl, PbS; H2O2 with PbS, Cl2, KI.
d and f Block Elements :
- Atomic radii – variation,
- explanation – catalytic properties,
- complex formation of d-block elements
- why Zn, Cd are not Transition elements
- K2PtCl6 is known but corresponding Ni compound is not known,
- Cu(II) is paramagnetic but Cu(F) is diamagnetic.
- Lanthanide contraction,
- Basicity of La(OH)3 and Lu(OH)3,
- Atomic radii — Zr, Hf, Misch metal-composition,
- stainless steel, invar, Alnico-composition,
- preparation KMnO4 from Pyrolustic Ore,
- K2Cr2O7 reacts with acidified KI, AgNO3 + KI —> ?
Coordination Compounds :
- Type of ligands – one example each.
- Chelate complex,
- IUPAC nomenclature,
- linkage isomer — example only.
- Stereoisomerism of — Ma2b2, Ma2bC, M(AA)2b2 type complexes,
- why NO GI for Tetrahedral complex,
- Total isomer for [CoCl2(en)2]+ complex.
- magnetic character of [NiCl4]-2, [Fe(H2O)6]+3 , [Fe(CN)6]-3 complexes.
Haloalkanes and Haloarenes :
- Reaction of halogen acids with alcohol,
- Hunsdiecker reaction,
- Grignard reagent,
- Fittig reaction,
- ChCl3 + KOH –> ?,
- ChCl3 + Ag –> ?,
- Iodoform reaction.
Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers :
- Preparation of primary, secondary, tertiary alcohols by Grignard reagent,
- acid catalyzed hydration of alkene,
- acid strength of 1° , 2° , 3° alcohol,
- dehydration, R-OH + SOCl2 –>?,
- Lucas test
- lower to higher alcohol conversion and vice versa ,
- acid character of phenol,
- effect of substituent on the acidity of phenol,
- Phenol + Br2 / H2O –> ?
- Phenol + Br2 / CS2 –> ?
- picric acid,
- Kolbe’s A Schimdt reaction, salol, aspirin comma oil of wintergreen , reimer tiemann reaction, coupling, gattermann reaction reaction
Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids :
- Williamson synthesis,
- R OH + CH2N2 + HBF4 –> ?
- ether + HI in cold –> ?
- ether + HI in excess –> ?
- (CH3COO)2Ca + heat –> ?
- (HCOO)2Ca + heat –> ?
- Rosenmund reduction,
- Reactivity of aliphatic aldehyde and ketone,
- cyanohydrin formation,
- Acetals and ketals,
- RCH2OH (reduction),
- CH3—CH=CH—CHO + NaBH4 –> ?
- CH3—CH=CH—CHO + LiAlH4 –> ?
- Cannizaro reaction
- cross aldol
- Tischenko reaction
- Carboxylic acid more acidic than phenol
- HVZ reaction
- Distinction between phenol and carboxylic acid
- How would you prepare Lactic acid from acetaldehyde,
- How would you prepare ethane from acetaldehyde?
- Clemenson reduction,
- Why formic acid reduces Tollen’s reagent?
- Acid strength of compounds – CH3CH2OH, CH3COOH, ClCH2COOH, C6H5CH2COOH, FCH2COOH
Organic Compounds containing Nitrogen :
- Stephen’s reduction,
- R-NO2 + Sn/HCl or LiAlH4 –> ?
- R-NO2 + Zn / NH4Cl –> ?
- Nitrobenzene Reduction –> ? 1. Acidic, 2. Neutral, 3. Alkaline medium
- Amide to Amine
- Basic character of aliphatic and aromatic amine (Polar and Non-Polar solvent)
- RNH2 + HNO2 –> ?
- Carbylamine reaction
- Sandmeyer, Balz-Schiemann reaction
- Aniline does not undergo Friedel-craft reaction, Why?
- Aniline to Benzene
- Sulphonilic acid cannot be acylated but its sodium salt can be readily acylated, why?
- Reducing, non-reducing sugar (example) ,
- glucose reacts with conc HNO3, Br2/H2O, [Aldohexose, Aldoketose-example]
- acidic, basic, neutral amino acid-example [zwitter ion – for Alanine, Glycine],
- Isoelectric Point,
- What is Peptide bonds,
- Fibrous and globulour protein,
- denaturation of protein,
- vitamin B12 – metal,
- glycosidic linkage,
- nucleoside and nucleotide,
- glucose heated with Tollen’s reagent,
- Addition, condensation polymer,
- Thermoplastic and Thermosetting polymers,
- write name of monomer – natural rubber,
- Terylene or Dacron,
- Nylon-6 or Perlon,
- Nylon – 66,
- what are polyesters, Bakelite,
- what are Polyamides-example,
- Low density – High density polythene.